It shows your diffrent network iinterace types and information about those network interfaces

iwconfig is to see if you have a wireless adapter with monitor mode you can see info about that here

like wlan1 or wlan0 kinda thing


Ping - Is basically a endless loop of sending the requests to a host (it shows we are talking to the other machine so it shows us is the machine working or not)

ping www.google.com


arp -a

It shows you the ip addresses it talks to and mac addresses associated with it

Arp is address resolution protocol so it resolves Ip addresses and associates them to MAC addresses


netstat -ano

it shows all the active connections running on your machine .So you can see whats open and whats talking to what