if we see d at first it means its a directory and - means its a file

wxr - write excetuable read

How to give something executable privileges

777 gives us all read write executable permissions

chmod +x hello.txt gives the file executble permision

chmod +rwx hello.txt

chmod 777 hello.txt

chmod +x hello.txt

To add new users you use

adduser nameofuser

To get list of the users we do this -

cat /etc/passwd

It shows us all the users (It doesnt provide the password that is in th shadow file)

cat /etc/shadow

This is will show you do a list of hashed passwords and then you can use that in hashcat and try to get the actuall password out of the hashed password.